It is shown that an ideal forming operation for an extrusion or drawing die shrinks not only the cross-sectional area but also the perimeter. It follows that for any billet shape there are product cross-sections which can be produced by extrusion or drawing dies but not by ideal forming operations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was partly supported by a grant from the ALCOA
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- B. ideally plastic material
- C. optimization