Lytic viral infection results in production of viral progeny, and lysis of the infected cells. Tumor cells are usually more sensitive to virus infection. Studies of viral oncolysis indicate that it could represent a promising alternative approach to cancer therapy. The ability of viruses to kill selectively cancer cells had been noticed for quite a long time ago. However, only in recent years, based on deeper understanding of molecular biology of viruses and the cell and due to the development of modern methods for directed modification of viruses, there emerged a real opportunity for development of virus variants with improved therapeutic potential. Adenoviruses represent one of the most studied models of oncolytic viruses. The DNA-containing viruses are very suitable for genetic manipulation and show minimal pathogenicity. The review summarizes data on directions and approaches aiming generation of highly efficient variants of oncolytic adenoviruses. The approaches include introduction of directed genetic modifications into viral genome, accelerated selection of oncolytic viral variants following treatment with mutagens, the use of adenoviruses as vectors for introduction of therapeutic gene products, optimization of viral delivery systems, minimalization of negative effects from the host immune system etc. The dynamic development of studies in the field holds promise for introduction into clinical practice of many variants of oncolytic adenoviruses in the very near future.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||14|
|State||Published - Jul 2012|