Whether or not the principles of adult resuscitation apply to the pediatric population remains unknown. In order to study this issue, a pediatric animal model was developed using puppies 6-12 weeks of age and 2-8 kg in weight. Hemodynamic status was assessed using standard methods, and measured global cerebral blood flow was assessed using the nitrous oxide (Kety-Schmidt) technique after placement of a cathefer in the sagittal sinus. In this initial study, five puppies resuscitated with closedchest cardiac compression (CCCC) were compared with five receiving open-chest cardiac compression (OCCC). Although mean systolic arterial pressures were equal with both methods during resuscitation (40 versus 49 mm Hg, P = 0.19), OCCC produced a greater cardiac output and a higher cerebral blood flow (5 versus 18 ml/100 g/min, P = 0.008). Only one of five dogs treated with CCCC had a blood flow during resuscitation greater than 15 ml/100 g/min, as compared with four of five receiving OCCC. Finally, three of five dogs in the CCCC group experienced liver lacerations, while none who were resuscitated by OCCC sustained any gross visceral injuries.
- cardiac compression
- cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)