Optimal choice of generic milk advertising expenditures by media outlet

James G. Pritchett, Donald J Liu, Harry M. Kaiser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


The largest portion of dairy and milk checkoff funds is spent on generic fluid milk advertising. These funds are distributed among four distinct media outlets - television, radio, print, and outdoor. Spending too little on one media outlet or too much on another constitutes a missed opportunity to garner higher returns. Using 1984-93 data, this study compares historical advertising expenditures in each media outlet to the advertising expenditure decision of an optimal control model. Results show profits would have increased if funds had been reallocated from television to radio, print, and outdoor media outlets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)155-169
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Resource Economics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1998


  • Generic fluid milk advertising
  • Milk
  • Optimal control

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