Optimization of the intensity gain of multiple-focus phased-array heating patterns

E. S. Ebbini, C. A. Cain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


A new technique for enhancing the intensity gain at the focal points in multiple-focus patterns is introduced. The new technique is shown to be effective in reducing the interference typically associated with multiple-focus patterns. This reduction in interference patterns allows multiple-focus scanning to generate highly localized heating. Simulation results indicate that multiple-focus scanning not only provides an alternative to single-focus scanning, but also achieves better localization in the heating pattern. The maximization of intensity gain of multiple-focus heating patterns significantly reduces the pre-focal-depth high-temperature regions that can be caused by single-focus scanning. This is shown by computer simulation of a two-dimensional cylindrical-section array (CSA2D) as a heating applicator. Two series of simulations are presented in which different scan trajectories were used to therapeutically heat a small deep-seated target volume. In every case the heating pattern was generated using single-focus scanning and multiple-focus scanning (with and without intensity gain maximization). Multiple-focus scanning with gain maximization offers the best localization of heating to the target volume of the three methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)953-973
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Journal of Hyperthermia
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jan 1 1991


  • Computer simulations
  • Multiple-focus scanning
  • Pattern synthesis
  • Single-focus scanning

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