In order to compare the effect of combined oral contraceptive (COC) and combined vaginal contraceptive (CVC) methods on the inflammation and procoagulation, we recruited female participants in 3 groups: control participants, COC users, and CVC users. We measured different blood biomarkers. The users of both COC and CVC had higher levels of C-reactive protein (P <.0001) and factor VII (P <.0001). However, CD40 ligand was only higher for COC users (P <.0001) and not the CVC users. Even though the levels of thrombin/antithrombin III were not higher for COC and CVC users, as compared to the controls, CVC users had higher levels as compared to COC users (P =.0327). As compared to the control group, we observed higher levels von Willebrand factor among CVC users but not the COC users. Longitudinal studies with larger sample size are needed to better assess the inflammatory and procoagulation response due to CVC use.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study was supported by the Office of the Vice President for Research and Minnesota Medical Foundation at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
- blood biomarkers
- hormonal contraceptives
- risk factors