Food and nutrition interventions are often designed to enhance outcome expectations in hopes of influencing dietary intake. However, outcome expectations in the context of dietary behavior have not been studied extensively. This study examined this association in a sample of 384 adults, of whom 59% were women (mean age, 56 years). Analyses examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between outcome expectations and use of specific diet-related behavioral strategies and dietary intake. Results suggest that outcome expectations are associated with strategy use. When measurement of dietary intake is impractical, measures of strategy use could be beneficial and sensitive indicators of program impact.