Central oxytocin suppresses appetite. Neuronal activity and the release of oxytocin coincide with satiation, as well as with adverse events (e.g. hyperosmolality, toxicity or excessive stomach distension) that necessitate an immediate termination of eating behaviour. Oxytocin also decreases consumption driven by reward, especially as derived from ingesting carbohydrates and sweet tastants. This review summarises current knowledge of the role of oxytocin in food intake regulation and highlights a growing body of evidence showing that oxytocin is a conditional anorexigen [i.e. its effects on appetite differ significantly with respect to certain (patho)physiological, behavioural and social contexts].