This study was directed at surface structures that are found on human lymphohemopoietic progenitor cells in normal and leukemic bone marrow. A monoclonal antibody was produced against an acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell line of the pre-B phenotype; this antibody (BA-2) was used to demonstrate a cell surface polypeptide of ~24,000 mol wt that migrates similarly in both reduced and nonreduced form. This polypeptide, p24/BA-2, was shown by immune precipitation and gel electrophoresis and cell distribution studies to be different from HLA-DR and gp100/cALLa. p24.BA-2 was present on the surface of 77% (54/70) of cases of non-T, non-B ALL; BA-2 staining was less bright or nondetectable in surface Ig+ (SIg+) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and T ALL and nondetectable on peripheral T and B lymphocytes. Approximately 3% of bone marrow mononuclear cells were p24/BA-2+, and these cells were E rosette-, surface (SIg-), and nonphagocytic. Marrow TdT+ progenitor cells were frequently p24/BA-2+. Results suggest that p24/BA-2 represents a surface structure present on lymphohemopoietic bone marrow progenitor cells and that most common types of ALL bear the p24/BA-2 structure.