Palladium complexes of abnormal N-heterocyclic carbenes as precatalysts for the much preferred Cu-free and amine-free Sonogashira coupling in air in a mixed-aqueous medium

Alex John, Mobin M. Shaikh, Prasenjit Ghosh

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104 Scopus citations

Abstract

A series of new PEPPSI (Pyridine Enhanced Precatalyst Preparation Stabilization and Initiation) themed precatalysts of abnormal N-heterocyclic carbenes for the highly desirable Cu-free and amine-free Sonogashira coupling in air in a mixed-aqueous medium is reported. Specifically, the PEPPSI themed (NHC)PdI2(pyridine) type precatalysts, 1b-4b, efficiently carried out the highly convenient Cu-free and amine-free Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides and iodides with terminal acetylenes in air in a mixed aqueous medium. Complexes, 1b-4b, were synthesized by the direct reaction of the corresponding imidazo[1,2-a]pyridinium iodide salts, 1a-4a, with PdCl2 in pyridine in the presence of K2CO3 as a base while the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridinium iodide salts, 1a-4a, were in turn synthesized by the alkylation reactions of the respective imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivatives with alkyl iodides. The density functional theory (DFT) studies revealed that these imidazol-3-ylidene[1,2-a]pyridine derived abnormal carbenes are strongly σ-donating and consequently significantly weaken the catalytically important labile trans pyridine ligand in 1b-4b.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10581-10591
Number of pages11
JournalDalton Transactions
Issue number47
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 31 2009

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