Objective: To review one institution's experience with parathyroid lipoadenomas and to report the associated clinical characteristics. Methods: We present a case series of parathyroid lipoadenomas. A parathyroid lipoadenoma was defined as a single adenoma with more than 50% fat on histologic examination in conjunction with primary hyperparathyroidism and resolution of hypercalcemia postoperatively. Patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria were identified from the surgical pathology files of the Mayo Clinic. Results: Five cases of parathyroid lipoadenomas, including 1 oxyphil lipoadenoma, were identified during the period from 1971 to 2001. The clinical picture of the study subjects resembled that of a typical patient with primary hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid lipoadenomas were identified in 3 women (60%) and 2 men (40%), and only 1 patient presented with possible hypercalcemia-related symptoms of nephrolithiasis and hip fracture, leading to diagnosis. The mean serum calcium concentration was 11.1 mg/dL. Preoperatively, all study subjects had elevation of serum parathyroid hormone levels. Two of 3 patients (67%) had the tumor identified preoperatively by neck ultrasonography. Conclusion: A parathyroid lipoadenoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. The clinical features of this pathologic entity are similar to those of the more common pathologic variants of parathyroid disease associated with primary hyperparathyroidism.