OBJECTIVE: To determine parental actions and concerns and physician responses to parental notification that a child's cholesterol value was 200 mg/dL or greater, a value recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program to warrant physician follow-up and evaluation. METHODOLOGY: A telephone survey of parents (n = 784) and physicians (n = 117) was carried out after parental notification of a total blood cholesterol value obtained as part of measurement done while participating in the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health in 96 schools located in California, Louisiana, Minnesota, and Texas. RESULTS: Only 20% of parents contacted physicians. Factors associated with this action included whether the parent was notified once or twice, the level of the cholesterol, previous cholesterol testing in the parent, and medical insurance that covered the visit. Family history of cardiovascular disease, when other factors were considered, did not increase the likelihood that a physician contact would be made. After contact with the physician, 59% of physicians reported evaluating children for cholesterol; about half reported repeating the cholesterol determination. CONCLUSION: Parental knowledge of a child's cholesterol value of 200 mg/dL or greater did not result in substantially further seeking of health care.