Parental Education and Genetics of BMI from Infancy to Old Age: A Pooled Analysis of 29 Twin Cohorts

Karri Silventoinen, Aline Jelenkovic, Antti Latvala, Yoshie Yokoyama, Reijo Sund, Masumi Sugawara, Mami Tanaka, Satoko Matsumoto, Sari Aaltonen, Maarit Piirtola, Duarte L. Freitas, José A. Maia, Sevgi Y. Öncel, Fazil Aliev, Fuling Ji, Feng Ning, Zengchang Pang, Esther Rebato, Kimberly J. Saudino, Tessa L. CutlerJohn L. Hopper, Vilhelmina Ullemar, Catarina Almqvist, Patrik K.E. Magnusson, Wendy Cozen, Amie E. Hwang, Thomas M. Mack, Gonneke Willemsen, Meike Bartels, Catharina E.M. van Beijsterveldt, Tracy L. Nelson, Keith E. Whitfield, Joohon Sung, Jina Kim, Jooyeon Lee, Sooji Lee, Clare H. Llewellyn, Abigail Fisher, Emanuela Medda, Lorenza Nisticò, Virgilia Toccaceli, Laura A. Baker, Catherine Tuvblad, Robin P. Corley, Brooke M. Huibregtse, Catherine A. Derom, Robert F. Vlietinck, Ruth J.F. Loos, Ariel Knafo-Noam, David Mankuta, Lior Abramson, S. Alexandra Burt, Kelly L. Klump, Judy L. Silberg, Hermine H. Maes, Robert Krueger, Matt Mc Gue, Shandell Pahlen, Margaret Gatz, David A. Butler, Jennifer R. Harris, Thomas S. Nilsen, K. Paige Harden, Elliot M. Tucker-Drob, Carol E. Franz, William S. Kremen, Michael J. Lyons, Paul Lichtenstein, Hoe Uk Jeong, Yoon Mi Hur, Dorret I. Boomsma, Thorkild I.A. Sørensen, Jaakko Kaprio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze how parental education modifies the genetic and environmental variances of BMI from infancy to old age in three geographic-cultural regions. Methods: A pooled sample of 29 cohorts including 143,499 twin individuals with information on parental education and BMI from age 1 to 79 years (299,201 BMI measures) was analyzed by genetic twin modeling. Results: Until 4 years of age, parental education was not consistently associated with BMI. Thereafter, higher parental education level was associated with lower BMI in males and females. Total and additive genetic variances of BMI were smaller in the offspring of highly educated parents than in those whose parents had low education levels. Especially in North American and Australian children, environmental factors shared by co-twins also contributed to the higher BMI variation in the low education level category. In Europe and East Asia, the associations of parental education with mean BMI and BMI variance were weaker than in North America and Australia. Conclusions: Lower parental education level is associated with higher mean BMI and larger genetic variance of BMI after early childhood, especially in the obesogenic macro-environment. The interplay among genetic predisposition, childhood social environment, and macro-social context is important for socioeconomic differences in BMI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)855-865
Number of pages11
JournalObesity
Volume27
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding agencies: This study was conducted within the Collaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins (Academy of Finland Grant 266592). Funding for individual collaborators is as follows. The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden is supported by the Swedish Research Council through the Swedish Initiative for Research on Microdata in the Social and Medical Sciences Framework Grant 340-2013-5867, grants provided by the Stockholm County Council (ALF projects), the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, and the Swedish Asthma and Allergy Association’s Research Foundation. The Netherlands Twin Register acknowledges support from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research and MagW/ZonMW Grants 904-61-090, 985-10-002, 912-10-020, 904-61-193,480-04-004, 463-06-001, 451-04-034, 400-05-717, Addiction-31160008, Middelgroot-911-09-032, and Spinozapremie-56-464-14192; Vrije University’s Institute for Health and Care Research; the European Research Council (ERC; grant 230374); and the Avera Institute, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Data collection and analyses in Finnish twin cohorts have been supported by the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE; FP7-HEALTH-F4-2007, grant agreement 201413), the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (grants AA-12502, AA-00145, and AA-09203 to R. J. Rose), the Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in Complex Disease Genetics (grants 213506 and 129680), and the Academy of Finland (grants 100499, 205585, 118555, 141054, 265240, 264146, and 312073 to J. Kaprio). Since its origin, the East Flanders Prospective Survey has been partly supported by grants from the Fund of Scientific Research, Flanders and Twins, a nonprofit Association for Scientific Research in Multiple Births (Belgium). Gemini was supported by a grant from Cancer Research UK (C1418/A7974). Data collection and research stemming from the Norwegian Twin Registry are supported, in part, by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programmes ENGAGE Consortium (grant agreement HEALTH-F4-2007-201413) and Biobank Standardization and Harmonization for Research Excellence in the European Union (grant agreement HEALTH-F4-2010-261433). Madeira data come from Genetic and Environmental Influences on Physical Activity, Fitness and Health: the Madeira Family Study (project reference: POCI/DES/56834/2004, founded by the Portuguese agency for research [the Foundation for Science and Technology]). S. Y. Öncel and F. Aliev are supported by a Kırıkkale University research grant (2009/43) and a Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey grant (114C117). K. Silventoinen is supported by Osaka University’s International Joint Research Promotion Program. The Boston University Twin Project is funded by grants (R01HD068435 and R01MH062375) from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to K. J. Saudino. The California Twin Program was supported by the California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (7RT-0134H, 8RT-0107H, and 6RT-0354H) and NIH (1R01ESO15150-01). The Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging was funded by a grant from the National Institute on Aging (NIA; 1R01AG13662-01A2) to K. E. Whitfield. The Colorado Twin Registry is funded by National Institute on Drug Abuse grant DA011015 and Longitudinal Twin Study grant HD10333; B. M. Huibregtse is supported by 5T32DA017637 and 5T32AG052371. The Michigan State University (MSU) Twin Registry has been supported by MSU, as well as by grants R01MH081813, R01MH0820-54, R01MH092377-02, R21MH070542-01, and R03MH63851-01 from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), grant R01HD066040 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), and grant 11-SPG-2518 from the MSU Foundation. The content of this manuscript is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of NIMH, NICHD, or NIH. The University of Southern California Twin Study is funded by a grant from NIMH (R01MH58354). The Texas Twin Project is currently funded by grants AA023322 and HD081437 from NIH. The Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging was supported by NIH/NIA grants R01AG018384, R01AG018386, R01AG022381, and R01AG022982 and, in part, with resources of the VA San Diego Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health. The Cooperative Studies Program of the Office of Research & Development of the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has provided financial support for the development and maintenance of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. The content of this manuscript is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of NIA/NIH or VA. The National Academy of Sciences–National Research Council Twin Registry acknowledges financial support from NIH grant R21AG039572. The Korean Twin-Family Register was supported by the Global Research Network Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF; 2011-220-E00006). The South Korea Twin Registry is supported by the NRF of Korea (NRF-371-2011-1 B00047). The West Japan Twins and Higher Order Multiple Births Registry was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (15H05105) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. This research was facilitated through access to Twins Research Australia, a national resource supported by a Centre of Research Excellence Grant (1079102) from the National Health and Medical Research Council. The Longitudinal Israeli Study of Twins was funded by Starting Grant 240994 from the ERC to A. Knafo-Noam. Disclosure: The authors declared no conflict of interest.

Funding Information:
Funding for individual collaborators is as follows. The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden is supported by the Swedish Research Council through the Swedish Initiative for Research on Microdata in the Social and Medical Sciences Framework Grant 340-2013-5867, grants provided by the Stockholm County Council (ALF projects), the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, and the Swedish Asthma and Allergy Association's Research Foundation. The Netherlands Twin Register acknowledges support from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research and MagW/ZonMW Grants 904-61-090, 985-10-002, 912-10-020, 904-61-193,480-04-004, 463-06-001, 451-04-034, 400-05-717, Addiction-31160008, Middelgroot-911-09-032, and Spinozapremie-56-464-14192; Vrije University's Institute for Health and Care Research; the European Research Council (ERC; grant 230374); and the Avera Institute, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Data collection and analyses in Finnish twin cohorts have been supported by the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE; FP7-HEALTH-F4-2007, grant agreement 201413), the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (grants AA-12502, AA-00145, and AA-09203 to R. J. Rose), the Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in Complex Disease Genetics (grants 213506 and 129680), and the Academy of Finland (grants 100499, 205585, 118555, 141054, 265240, 264146, and 312073 to J. Kaprio). Since its origin, the East Flanders Prospective Survey has been partly supported by grants from the Fund of Scientific Research, Flanders and Twins, a nonprofit Association for Scientific Research in Multiple Births (Belgium). Gemini was supported by a grant from Cancer Research UK (C1418/A7974). Data collection and research stemming from the Norwegian Twin Registry are supported, in part, by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programmes ENGAGE Consortium (grant agreement HEALTH-F4-2007-201413) and Biobank Standardization and Harmonization for Research Excellence in the European Union (grant agreement HEALTH-F4-2010-261433). Madeira data come from Genetic and Environmental Influences on Physical Activity, Fitness and Health: the Madeira Family Study (project reference: POCI/DES/56834/2004, founded by the Portuguese agency for research [the Foundation for Science and Technology]). S. Y. ?ncel and F. Aliev are supported by a K?r?kkale University research grant (2009/43) and a Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey grant (114C117). K. Silventoinen is supported by Osaka University's International Joint Research Promotion Program. The Boston University Twin Project is funded by grants (R01HD068435 and R01MH062375) from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to K. J. Saudino. The California Twin Program was supported by the California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (7RT-0134H, 8RT-0107H, and 6RT-0354H) and NIH (1R01ESO15150-01). The Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging was funded by a grant from the National Institute on Aging (NIA; 1R01AG13662-01A2) to K. E. Whitfield. The Colorado Twin Registry is funded by National Institute on Drug Abuse grant DA011015 and Longitudinal Twin Study grant HD10333; B. M. Huibregtse is supported by 5T32DA017637 and 5T32AG052371. The Michigan State University (MSU) Twin Registry has been supported by MSU, as well as by grants R01MH081813, R01MH0820-54, R01MH092377-02, R21MH070542-01, and R03MH63851-01 from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), grant R01HD066040 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), and grant 11-SPG-2518 from the MSU Foundation. The content of this manuscript is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of NIMH, NICHD, or NIH. The University of Southern California Twin Study is funded by a grant from NIMH (R01MH58354).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Obesity Society

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