We propose a passive bilateral teleoperation control law for a pair of n-degree-of-freedom (DOF) nonlinear robotic systems. The control law ensures energetic passivity of the closed-loop teleoperator with power scaling, coordinates motions of the master and slave robots, and installs useful task-specific dynamics for inertia scaling, motion guidance, and obstacle avoidance. Consequently, the closed-loop teleoperator behaves like a common passive mechanical tool. A key innovation is the passive decomposition, which decomposes the 2n-DOF nonlinear teleoperator dynamics into two robot-like systems without violating passivity: an n-DOF shape system representing the master-slave position coordination aspect, and an n-DOF locked system representing the dynamics of the coordinated teleoperator. The master-slave position coordination is then achieved by regulating the shape system, while programmable apparent inertia of the coordinated teleoperator is achieved by scaling the inertia of the locked system. To achieve this perfect coordination and inertia scaling, the proposed control law measures and compensates for environment and human forcing. Passive velocity field control and artificial potential field control are used to implement guidance and obstacle avoidance for the coordinated teleoperator. The designed control is also implemented in an intrinsically passive negative semidefinite structure to ensure energetic passivity of the closed-loop teleoperator, even in the presence of parametric model uncertainties and inaccurate force sensing. Experiments are performed to validate the properties of the proposed control framework.
- Inertia scaling
- Nonlinear teleoperator
- Passive control implementation
- Power scaling