This paper presents a passive bilateral feedforward control scheme for linear dynamically similar (LDS) teleoperated manipulators with kinematic scaling and power scaling. The proposed control law renders the teleoperator as a passive rigid mechanical tool with programmable apparent inertia to the human operator and the work environment by utilizing bilateral force feedforward and kinematic feedback control. The passivity of the closed-loop system is robust to force measurement inaccuracies and model uncertainty. Thus, interaction stability of the teleoperator with any passive environment is guaranteed. Coordination error and the overall motion aspects of teleoperation are controlled individually. The proposed control law is also applicable to general nonlinear robotic teleoperators if sufficiently high kinematic feedback gains are used. The proposed control schemes have been validated experimentally for both LDS and non-LDS systems.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received March 19, 2002; revised October 25, 2002. This paper was recommended for publication by Associate Editor Y. Liu and Editor I. Walker upon evaluation of the reviewers’ comments. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CMS-9870013. This paper was presented in part at ACC, Philadelphia, PA, 1998; IMECE, Orlando, FL, 2000; and ACC, Arlington, VA, 2001.
- Apparent inertia
- Dynamic similarity
- Kinematic scaling
- Power scaling