The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of tobacco initiation, current use, and smoking cessation and their correlates in the adult American Indian population in the Twin Cities, using community-based participatory research methods. A total of 300 American Indians aged 18 years or older participated in in-person interviews. Participants were recruited to fill age-gender quotas that reflect the demographic distribution of American Indians in Minnesota. Almost everyone in this sample had smoked cigarettes recreationally: Only 12% had smoked fewer than 100 cigarettes, and nearly two-thirds (62%) reported that they were current smokers. Only 29% of ever-smokers had quit smoking. More than two-thirds (68%) of current smokers would like to quit, and most of them (53% of all smokers) had tried unsuccessfully to quit in the previous 12 months. Our results show a level of current smoking and low cessation rates among American Indians in the Twin Cities area that reflect a crisis for public health and for the Indian community.