Hundreds of millions of people suffer from malaria, and more than a million children die of malaria each year. Malaria typically presents with fever and headache, but the presentation often is nonspecific. The diagnosis should be based on blood tests, and thick and thin smears are the standard means of identifying parasites. In some areas, chloroquine still is effective as treatment, but other medications are needed in most parts of the world. Patients with severe disease (altered consciousness, marked anemia, and/or respiratory distress) should begin therapy parenterally. Control measures depend on the use of insecticide-treated bednets, early identification and treatment of symptomatic individuals, and intermittent preventive therapy. Progress continues toward the development of a useful vaccine.