Cyclosporins has improved the results of renal transplantation. In 1984, we began using it as part of a sequential immunosuppression protocol (MALG, AZA, P, and delayed administration of CsA) in our pediatric renal transplant recipients. We studied the outcome of the 131 pediatric renal transplants (<18 years of age at transplant) performed at our institution between June 1984 and March 1991. We compared these results with the 144 similar transplants performed since January 1980 that did not involve CsA immunosuppression.In the sequential immunosuppression group, there were 97 primary (74%) (26 [27%] cadaver, 71 [73%] living donor [LD]) and 34 (26%) retransplant (23 [68%] CAD, 11 [32%]) recipients. Age at transplant (mean± SD) was 7.415.5. Overall, 1-year actuarial graft survival was 93%; 1-year patient survival was 100%. The mean number of hospital readmissions was 3.0±3.5; 26 (20%) were readmission-free. The mean number of rejection episodes was.8711.3 per patient; 73 (56%) were rejection-free. Importantly, LD (vs. CAD) recipients had fewer rejection episodes (P = 0.06). In the first post-transplant year, the serum creatinine level was significantly lower in primary (vs. retransplant) recipients and in LD (vs. CAD) recipients (P < 0.05).In the 144 patients not receiving CsA, there were 129 (90%) primary (27 CAD, 102 LD) and 15 (10%) retransplant (7 CAD, 8 LD) recipients. Age at transplant was 6.915.3 years. The 1-year actuarial graft survival rate was 82%; the 1-year patient survival rate was 94%. The mean number of hospital readmissions was 3.312.3; 5 (8%) were readmission-free. The mean number of rejection episodes was 1.211.5; 27 (45%) were rejection-free. There was no difference in the serum creatinine level based on donor source or transplant number.Sequential immunosuppression has significantly improved patient (P = 0.003) and graft survival (P = 0.004) rates. Comparing sequential vs. non-CsA immunosuppression, there was no difference in the number of readmissions (P = 0.47), number of rejection episodes (P = 0.17), or serum creatinine level. The number of rejection-free patients was significantly lower in LD (vs. CAD) recipients (P < 0.05). There was no evidence of progressive deterioration in renal function in the sequential (vs. non-CsA) recipients.