A single intravenous dose of 2.0 g of amoxicillin and 0.2 g of potassium clavulanate was given to patients with bacterial meningitis, and the pharmacokinetics of both drugs in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma were evaluated. Twenty-one patients aged 14 to 76 years were studied. Both amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate were detectable in the CSF as early as 1 h and reached peak concentrations by approximately 2 h. The highest mean CSF concentrations were 2.25 μg/ml for amoxicillin and 0.25 μg/ml for potassium clavulanate and were found in patients with moderately or severely inflamed meninges. The CSF penetration relative to plasma for amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate was 5.8 and 8.4%, respectively. These levels suggest that the amoxicillin-potassium clavulanate combination may be effective for the treatment of bacterial meningitis caused by β-lactamase-producing pathogens.