Although affinity binding between short chain peptides and carbon nanotube (CNT) has been reported, little is known for the study of proteins with CNT recognition and specific binding capabilities. Herein, carbonic anhydrase (CA) was functionalized via protein fusion with a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNTs)-binding peptide, thereby forming a bioactive protein with high affinity binding capability. TEM and AFM analyses showed that the fusion CA could firmly coat to SWNTs with a surface coverage over 51%, while the enzyme maintained its catalytic activity. Structural analysis revealed that slight conformation changes were induced as a result of the fusion; however, the affinity binding of CA to the hydrophobic surface of SWNTs restored the native structure of the protein, with the conformation of the SWNT-bound CA largely resembling that of the native parent enzyme. Interfacial interactions between the fusion CA and SWNT were further investigated with Raman spectrometry and microscopic analysis. The results suggested that such peptide-induced CNT-protein binding allows the development of bioactive hybrid materials with the native structures of the protein moieties largely undisrupted.