Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence is greater among Hispanics/Latinos than other racial/ethnic groups and prevalence is further reported to vary among Hispanic/Latino background groups. Experimental animal and human studies demonstrate associations between periodontitis and NAFLD, not yet reported among Hispanics/Latinos. This study examined periodontitis as a novel risk factor that may contribute to the burden of NAFLD among Hispanics/Latinos. Methods: Data came from 11,914 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Periodontitis was defined as the extent (none, < 30%, ≥30%) of periodontal sites with clinical attachment level (CAL) of ≥3 mm or probing pocket depth (PD) of ≥4 mm. Elevated serum transaminases indicative of suspected NAFLD were defined as having alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT) > 40 IU/L or aspar-tate aminotransferase (AST) > 37 IU/L for men and ALT > 31 IU/L or AST > 31 IU/L for women. Survey-logistic regression models estimated prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between periodontitis and suspected NAFLD. Results: The overall age-standardized percentage of study participants with < 30% of sites with CAL ≥3 mm or PD ≥4 mm was 53.5% and 58.6%, respectively, while participants with ≥30% sites with CAL ≥3 mm or PD ≥4 mm comprised 16% and 5.72%, respectively. The overall age-standardized prevalence (95% CI) of suspected NAFLD was 18.1% (17.1-19.0). For the entire cohort, we observed a dose-response (i.e. graded) association between PD ≥4 mm and the prevalence odds of suspected NAFLD, whereby participants with < 30% affected had a crude POR = 1.19 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.38) while participants with ≥30% affected had a crude POR = 1.39 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.90). These crude estimates were attenuated toward the null and rendered non-significant upon covariate adjustment. No differences were found by Hispanic/Latino background group. Conclusion: Previously reported associations between periodontitis and NAFLD were marginal to null in this study of a diverse group of Hispanics/Latinos.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank the staff and participants of HCHS/SOL for their important contributions. The HCHS/SOL was carried out as a collaborative study supported by contracts from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) to the University of North Carolina (N01-HC65233), University of Miami (N01-HC65234), Albert Einstein College of Medicine (N01-HC65235), Northwestern University (N01-HC65236), and San Diego State University (N01-HC65237). The following institutes/centers/offices contribute to the HCHS/SOL through a transfer of funds to the NHLBI: the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH Institution-Office of Dietary Supplements. Support for this work was provided by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (grant R03DE025652-01A1). The authors declare no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.
Support for this work was provided by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (grant R03DE025652-01A1). The authors declare no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.
- Cross-sectional studies
- Epidemiologic studies