Peritrigonal and temporo-occipital heterotopia with corpus callosum and cerebellar dysgenesis

Tiziana Pisano, A. James Barkovich, Richard J. Leventer, Waney Squier, Ingrid E. Scheffer, Elena Parrini, Susan Blaser, Carla Marini, Stephen Robertson, Gaetano Tortorella, Felix Rosenow, Pierre Thomas, George McGillivray, Eva Andermann, Frederick Andermann, Samuel F. Berkovic, William B. Dobyns, Renzo Guerrini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To describe a homogeneous subtype of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) as part of a newly defined malformation complex. Methods: Observational study including review of brain MRI and clinical findings of a cohort of 50 patients with PNH in the temporo-occipital horns and trigones, mutation analysis of the FLNA gene, and anatomopathologic study of a fetal brain. Results: There were 28 females and 22 males. All were sporadic with the exception of an affected mother and son. Epilepsy occurred in 62%, cerebellar signs in 56%, cognitive impairment in 56%, and autism in 12%. Seventy percent were referred within the 3rd year of life. Imaging revealed a normal cerebral cortex in 76% and abnormal cortical folding in 24%. In all patients the hippocampi were under-rotated and in 10% they merged with the heterotopia. Cerebellar dysgenesis was observed in 84% and a hypoplastic corpus callosum in 60%. There was no gender bias or uneven gender distribution of clinical and anatomic severity. No mutations of FLNA occurred in 33 individuals examined. Heterotopia in the fetal brain revealed cytoarchitectonic characteristics similar to those associated with FLNA mutations; cortical pathology was not typical of polymicrogyria. Cerebellar involvement was more severe and the hippocampi appeared simple and under-rotated. Conclusions: This series delineates a malformation complex in which PNH in the trigones and occipito-temporal horns is associated with hippocampal, corpus callosum, and cerebellar dysgenesis. This subtype of PNH is distinct from classic PNH caused by FLNA mutations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1244-1251
Number of pages8
JournalNeurology
Volume79
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 18 2012
Externally publishedYes

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