K103N-containing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 variants are selected in some women who receive single-dose (SD) nevirapine (NVP) for prevention of HIV-1 mother-infant transmission. We examined the persistence of K103N in women who received SD NVP prophylaxis. K103N was detected using the LigAmp assay (assay cutoff, 0.5% K103N). K103N was detected at 6-8 weeks in 60 (41.7%) of 144 women. Fading (lack of detection) of K103N was documented in 16 women by 2 years, 43 women by 3 years, and 55 women by 4 and 5 years. Slower fading was independently associated with HIV-1 subtype (D>A) and higher pre-NVP viral load.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial support: HIV Network for Prevention Trials, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) (contract N01-AI-35173 to Family Health International, contract N01-AI-45200 to Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and subcontract NOI-AI-35173-417 to Johns Hopkins University); HIV Prevention Trials Network, NIAID, National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, and Office of AIDS Research, NIH, DHHS (grants U01-AI-46745, U01-AI-48054, U01-AI-068613); NIH, NICHD (grant R01-HD042965-01).