Purpose: This phase 2 study was designed to assess the efficacy of single agent cixutumumab (IMC-A12) and gain further information about associated toxicities and pharmacodynamics in children, adolescents, and young adults with recurrent or refractory solid tumors. Patients and Methods: Patients with relapsed or refractory solid tumors were treated with 9mg/kg of cixutumumab as a 1-hour IV infusion once weekly. Strata included: osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma (evaluable disease), neuroblastoma (measurable disease), Wilms tumor, adrenocortical carcinoma, synovial sarcoma, hepatoblastoma, and retinoblastoma. Correlative studies in consenting patients included an assessment of c-peptide, IGFBP-3, IGF-1, IGF-2, hGH, and insulin in consenting patients. Results: One hundred sixteen patients with 114 eligible having a median age of 12 years (range, 2-30) were enrolled. Five patients achieved a partial response: 4/20 with neuroblastoma (evaluable only) and 1/20 with rhabdomyosarcoma. Fourteen patients had stable disease for a median of 10 cycles. Hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities were generally mild and infrequent. Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 increased in response to therapy with cixutumumab. Conclusion: Cixutumumab is well tolerated in children with refractory solid tumors. Limited objective single-agent activity of cixutumumab was observed; however, prolonged stable disease was observed in 15% of patients. Ongoing studies are evaluating the toxicity and benefit of cixutumumab in combination with other agents that inhibit the IGF pathway.
- Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor
- Investigational agents
- Monoclonal antibody
- Pediatric cancer