Phenological stages of cultivated northern wild rice according to the BBCH scale

Jacques Duquette, Jennifer A. Kimball

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Cultivated northern wild rice (NWR), Zizania palustris L., is an aquatic grass native to North America that is grown in paddies and harvested for its grain. Domestication of the species began in Minnesota in the early 1950s to provide a stable source of the grain for food processors and to utilise marginal agricultural land. The University of Minnesota has been conducting breeding research on NWR since the 1960s. However, a detailed description of the species phenological stages has not been documented, which would help to standardise results across studies, aid in building accurate crop models, and improve the efficacy of time-sensitive crop management practices. We present here a phenological scale of cultivated NWR based on the widely adopted Biologische Bundesantalt, Bundessortenamt and Chemische Industrie (BBCH) scale, a system for a uniform coding of phenologically similar stages in plant species' (Bleiholder et al., Gesunde Pflanzen, 1989, 41, 381–384; Meier et al., Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes (Braunschweig), 1993, 45(2), 37–41). Data were collected in lab, greenhouse, and field settings at the North Central Research and Outreach Center at the University of Minnesota in Grand Rapids, MN. Ten principal and secondary phenological stages are described using the two-digit BBCH coding system. The description and coding of the scale covers the principal periods from seed storage to seed harvest.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)350-356
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Applied Biology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2020

Bibliographical note

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© 2020 Association of Applied Biologists


  • BBCH scale
  • Zizania palustris
  • northern wild rice
  • phenological stages
  • phenology


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