Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests

J. W.Ferry Slik, Janet Franklin, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Richard Field, Salomon Aguilar, Nikolay Aguirre, Jorge Ahumada, Shin Ichiro Aiba, Luciana F. Alves, K. Anitha, Andres Avella, Francisco Mora, Gerardo A.C. Aymard, Selene Báez, Patricia Balvanera, Meredith L. Bastian, Jean François Bastin, Peter J. Bellingham, Eduardo Van Den Berg, Polyanna Da Conceição BispoPascal Boeckx, Katrin Boehning-Gaese, Frans Bongers, Brad Boyle, Fabian Brambach, Francis Q. Brearley, Sandra Brown, Shauna Lee Chai, Robin L. Chazdon, Shengbin Chen, Phourin Chhang, George Chuyong, Corneille Ewango, Indiana M. Coronado, Jurgi Cristóbal-Azkarate, Heike Culmsee, Kipiro Damas, H. S. Dattaraja, Priya Davidar, Saara J. DeWalt, Hazimah DIn, Donald R. Drake, Alvaro Duque, Giselda Durigan, Karl Eichhorn, Eduardo Schmidt Eler, Tsutomu Enoki, Andreas Ensslin, Adandé Belarmain Fandohan, Nina Farwig, Kenneth J. Feeley, Markus Fischer, Olle Forshed, Queila Souza Garcia, Satish Chandra Garkoti, Thomas W. Gillespie, Jean Francois Gillet, Christelle Gonmadje, Iñigo Granzow-De La Cerda, Daniel M. Griffith, James Grogan, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, David J. Harris, Rhett D. Harrison, Andy Hector, Andreas Hemp, Jürgen Homeier, M. Shah Hussain, Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez, I. Faridah Hanum, Nobuo Imai, Patrick A. Jansen, Carlos Alfredo Joly, Shijo Joseph, Kuswata Kartawinata, Elizabeth Kearsley, Daniel L. Kelly, Michael Kessler, Timothy J. Killeen, Robert M. Kooyman, Yves Laumonier, Susan G. Laurance, William F. Laurance, Michael J. Lawes, Susan G. Letcher, Jeremy Lindsell, Jon Lovett, Jose Lozada, Xinghui Lu, Anne Mette Lykke, Khairil Bin Mahmud, Ni Putu DIana Mahayani, Asyraf Mansor, Andrew R. Marshall, Emanuel H. Martin, Darley Calderado Leal Matos, Jorge A. Meave, Felipe P.L. Melo, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre Mendoza, Faizah Metali, Vincent P. Medjibe, Jean Paul Metzger, Thiago Metzker, D. Mohandass, Miguel A. Munguía-Rosas, Rodrigo Muñoz, Eddy Nurtjahy, Eddie Lenza De Oliveira, Onrizal, Pia Parolin, Marc Parren, N. Parthasarathy, Ekananda Paudel, Rolando Perez, Eduardo A. Pérez-García, Ulf Pommer, Lourens Poorter, Lan Qi, Maria Teresa F. Piedade, José Roberto Rodrigues Pinto, Axel Dalberg Poulsen, John R. Poulsen, Jennifer S. Powers, Rama Chandra Prasad, Jean Philippe Puyravaud, Orlando Rangel, Jan Reitsma, DIogo S.B. Rocha, Samir Rolim, Francesco Rovero, Andes Rozak, Kalle Ruokolainen, Ervan Rutishauser, Gemma Rutten, Mohd Nizam Mohd Said, Felipe Z. Saiter, Philippe Saner, Braulio Santos, João Roberto Dos Santos, Swapan Kumar Sarker, Christine B. Schmitt, Jochen Schoengart, Mark Schulze, Douglas Sheil, Plinio Sist, Alexandre F. Souza, Wilson Roberto Spironello, Tereza Sposito, Robert Steinmetz, Tariq Stevart, Marcio Seiji Suganuma, Rahayu Sukri, Aisha Sultana, Raman Sukumar, Terry Sunderland, Supriyadi, H. S. Suresh, Eizi Suzuki, Marcelo Tabarelli, Jianwei Tang, Ed V.J. Tanner, Natalia Targhetta, Ida Theilade, Duncan Thomas, Jonathan Timberlake, Márcio De Morisson Valeriano, Johan Van Valkenburg, Tran Van Do, Hoang Van Sam, John H. Vandermeer, Hans Verbeeck, Ole Reidar Vetaas, Victor Adekunle, Simone A. Vieira, Campbell O. Webb, Edward L. Webb, Timothy Whitfeld, Serge Wich, John Williams, Susan Wiser, Florian Wittmann, Xiaobo Yang, C. Yves Adou Yao, Sandra L. Yap, Rakan A. Zahawi, Rahmad Zakaria, Runguo Zang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations

Abstract

Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northernhemisphere forests.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1837-1842
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume115
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 20 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. This study benefited greatly from data contributed by Patricia Alvarez-Loayza, Ana Andrade, Peter Ashton, Julian Bayliss, Luis Bernacci, Lilian Blanc, J. Bogaert, Matt Bradford, Mireille Breuer Ndoundou Hockemba, C. De Cannière, Miguel Castillo, Eduardo Catharino, Connie Clark, David Clark, Deborah Clark, Gilles Dauby, Jean-Louis Doucet, Pedro Eisenlohr, Leandro Ferreira, Christine Fletcher, Geraldo Franco, Gabriella M. Fredriksson, Girirai, Nimal Gunatilleke, Terese Hart, Miriam van Heist, Zhila Hemati, M. A. Hernández-Ruedas, David Kenfack, Kanehiro Kitayama, Eileen Larney, Ieda Leao do Amaral, Jean-Remy Makana, Punchi Manage Saranga Amila Ruwan, Antti Marjokorpi, Olga Martha Montiel, Miguel Martínez-Ramos, Henrik Meilby, Jerome Millet, Cao Min, Kazuki Miyamoto, Xiaoxue Mo, Juan Carlos Montero, Badru Mugerwa, Pantaleo Munishi, Helen Murphy, Hidetoshi Nagamasu, David Newbery, Rueben Nilus, Meyner Nusalawo, Susana Ochoa-Gaona, Atila Oliveira, Navendu Page, Andrea Permana, Nigel Pitman, Jean Razafimahaimodison, Rocío Rojas, Hugo Romero, M. Z. Rozainah, Fernanda Santos, Manichanh Satdichanh, Lars Schmidt, Lila Nath Sharma, Kade Sidiyasa, Eduardo da Silva Pinheiro, Peguy Tchouto, Johanna Urtado, Renato Valencia, Luis Valenzuela, Rodolfo Vasquez, Thorsten Wiegand, Guadelupe Williams-Linera, Hansjoerg Woll, Tsuyoshi Yoneda, and Nicole Zweifel. We also acknowledge contributed financial support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement 660020, Instituto Bem Ambiental (IBAM), Myr Projetos Sustentáveis, IEF, and CNPq, CAPES FAPEMIG, German Research Foundation (DFG; Grants CRC 552, CU127/3-1, HO 3296/2-2, HO3296/4-1, and RU 816), UNAM-PAPIIT IN218416 and Semarnat-CONACYT 128136, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnoloógico (CNPq, Brazil), Fundação Grupo Boticário de Proteção à Natureza/Brazil, PAPIIT-DGAPA-UNAM (Project IN-204215), National Geographic Society, National Foundation for Scientific and Technology Development Vietnam (Grant 106.11-2010.68), Operation Wallacea, and core funding for Crown Research Institutes from the New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment’s Science and Innovation Group. Some data in this publication were provided by the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network, a collaboration between Conservation International, the Missouri Botanical Garden, Smithsonian Institution, and Wildlife Conservation Society, and partially funded by these institutions, The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and other donors.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 IEEE.

Keywords

  • Biogeographic legacies
  • Forest classification
  • Forest functional similarity
  • Phylogenetic community distance
  • Tropical forests

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