Phylogeographical and cross-species transmission dynamics of SAT1 and SAT2 foot-and-mouth disease virus in Eastern Africa

George Omondi, Moh A. Alkhamis, Vincent Obanda, Francis Gakuya, Abraham Sangula, Steven Pauszek, Andres Perez, Stephen Ngulu, Richard van Aardt, Jonathan Arzt, Kim VanderWaal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Understanding the dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), an endemic and economically constraining disease, is critical in designing control programmes in Africa. This study investigates the evolutionary epidemiology of SAT1 and SAT2 FMDV in Eastern Africa, as well as between cattle and wild African buffalo. Bayesian phylodynamic models were used to analyse SAT1 and SAT2 VP1 gene segments collected between 1975 and 2016, focusing on the SAT1 and SAT2 viruses currently circulating in Eastern Africa. The root state posterior probabilities inferred from our analyses suggest Zimbabwe as the ancestral location for SAT1 currently circulating in Eastern Africa (p = 0.67). For the SAT2 clade, Kenya is inferred to be the ancestral location for introduction of the virus into other countries in Eastern Africa (p = 0.72). Salient (Bayes factor >10) viral dispersal routes were inferred from Tanzania to Kenya, and from Kenya to Uganda for SAT1 and SAT2, respectively. Results suggest that cattle are the source of the SAT1 and SAT2 clades currently circulating in Eastern Africa. In addition, our results suggest that the majority of SAT1 and SAT2 in livestock come from other livestock rather than wildlife, with limited evidence that buffalo serve as reservoirs for cattle. Insights from the present study highlight the role of cattle movements and anthropogenic activities in shaping the evolutionary history of SAT1 and SAT2 in Eastern Africa. While the results may be affected by inherent limitations of imperfect surveillance, our analysis elucidates the dynamics between host species in this region, which is key to guiding disease intervention activities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2903-2916
Number of pages14
JournalMolecular ecology
Volume28
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the Director of Kenya Wildlife Service and the management of Ol Pejeta Conservancy for logistical support. We are grateful to Joseph Kabugi, John Kariuki, Edward Kingori, Stephanie Hauver Lemaiyan, Elsie Maina, Dr Matthew Mutinda and Dr Stephen Ngulu for valuable assistance in the lab and field. We are also grateful to Kai Lin for his assistance in preparing and organizing the sequence data. This research was approved by Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS/BRM/5001), and the University of Minnesota Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (protocol no. 1502-32343A). Approval for outbreak samples was provided by the Directorate of Veterinary Services, Kenya (RES/POL/VOL.XXVII/334), and the non-CITES permit (0004401). This work was funded by the USAID through Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (Project no. 4-494) and National Academy of Sciences (Sub-grant number: 2000006168).

Funding Information:
We thank the Director of Kenya Wildlife Service and the manage‐ ment of Ol Pejeta Conservancy for logistical support. We are grateful to Joseph Kabugi, John Kariuki, Edward Kingori, Stephanie Hauver Lemaiyan, Elsie Maina, Dr Matthew Mutinda and Dr Stephen Ngulu for valuable assistance in the lab and field. We are also grateful to Kai Lin for his assistance in preparing and organizing the sequence data. This research was approved by Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS/ BRM/5001), and the University of Minnesota Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (protocol no. 1502‐32343A). Approval for outbreak samples was provided by the Directorate of Veterinary Services, Kenya (RES/POL/VOL.XXVII/334), and the non‐CITES permit (0004401). This work was funded by the USAID through Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (Project no. 4‐494) and National Academy of Sciences (Sub‐grant number: 2000006168).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Keywords

  • FMD
  • ancestral reconstruction
  • interspecific transmission
  • molecular epidemiology
  • phylodynamics
  • wildlife–livestock interfaces

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