The Chennai Urban Population Study investigates a South Indian population with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS). The Ala54Thr polymorphism in the fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene as well as the T-455C and C-482T polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3) gene promoter have been associated with features of the MS in specific populations. This study evaluates in Asian-Indians the association between these polymorphisms with MS and dyslipidemia, defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Allelic frequencies in 70 controls and 110 patients with diabetes from the Chennai Urban Population Study were 52.9% for FABP2 Thr54, 73.0% for APOC3 -482T, and 80.2% for APOC3 -455C. The polymorphisms were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Controls carrying FABP2 Thr54 were more likely to have MS than noncarriers (Fisher's exact test P = 0.031; odds ratio = 6.9 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.1, 43.9). Those carrying at least one polymorphic allele in both genes had a higher likelihood of having MS than wild type (Fisher's exact test P = 0.003; odds ratio = 12.1 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.88, 77.6). Dyslipidemia was associated with the polymorphism as well. The polymorphisms were not associated with MS in patients with diabetes. The association of the polymorphisms with MS and dyslipidemia could contribute to the high cardiovascular disease prevalence in this population.