Aim. To assess the prevalence of active and inactive uveitis unrelated to previous surgery or trauma in an urban population in southern India. Methods. As part of the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, 2522 subjects (85.4% of those eligible), a sample representative of the population of Hyderabad city in southern India, underwent interview and detailed dilated eye examination. Presence of sequelae of uveitis without current active inflammation was defined as inactive uveitis. Results. Unequivocal evidence of active or inactive uveitis unrelated to previous surgery or trauma was present in 21 subjects, an age-sex adjusted prevalence of 0.73% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-1.14%). Active uveitis was present in eight subjects, an age-sex adjusted prevalence of 0.37% (95% CI 0.19-0.70), of which 0.06% was anterior, 0.25% intermediate, and 0.06% posterior. The 0.36% (95% CI 0.17-0.68%) prevalence of inactive uveitis included macular chorioretinitis scars (0.26%), anterior (0.07%) and previous vasculitis involving the whole eye (0.03%). The prevalence of visual impairment due to uveitis of less than 6/18 in at least one eye was 0.27%, less than 6/60 in at least one eye was 0.16%, and less than 6/60 in both eyes was 0.03%. Conclusion. These population based cross sectional data give an estimate of the prevalence of various types of uveitis in this urban population in India. Active or past uveitis that might need treatment at some stage was present in one of every 140 people in this population.