Post-Sexual Assault Mental Health: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Video-Based Intervention

Amanda K. Gilmore, Kate Walsh, Patricia Frazier, Liza Meredith, Linda Ledray, Joanne Davis, Ron Acierno, Kenneth J. Ruggiero, Dean G. Kilpatrick, Anna E. Jaffe, Heidi S. Resnick

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1 Scopus citations

Abstract

The current study assessed the efficacy of a brief video intervention (Prevention of Post-Rape Stress [PPRS]) delivered in the emergency department to recent sexual assault (SA) victims. PPRS was compared to treatment as usual (TAU) and an active control condition (Pleasant Imagery and Relaxation Instruction [PIRI]). Primary outcomes were posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and perceived present control. Prior SA was examined as a moderator of treatment effects. Women (n = 233; aged 15 years and older; 59.70% identified as a racial or ethnic minority) who received a post-SA medical forensic exam participated in the study (NCT01430624). Participants were randomized to watch the PPRS video (n = 77), the PIRI video (n = 77), or receive TAU (n = 79). Participants completed measures of PTSD symptoms and perceived present control 1.5-, 3-, and 6-months post-SA. An interaction between condition and prior SA was found on PTSD symptom frequency and on perceived present control. Among women with a prior SA, women in the PPRS versus TAU condition reported less frequent PTSD symptoms 6-months post-SA. Those in the PPRS condition had lower perceived present control than those in the TAU condition among those with no prior SA 3-months post-SA. However, at 6-months post-SA, among women with a prior SA, women in the PPRS reported higher perceived present control than those in TAU. These findings partially replicate a prior study in which PPRS was found to be beneficial in mitigating the development of PTSD symptoms, but only for women with a prior SA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Interpersonal Violence
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5376-9206 Gilmore Amanda K. PhD 1 Walsh Kate PhD 2 Frazier Patricia PhD 3 Meredith Liza PhD 3 Ledray Linda PhD 4 Davis Joanne PhD 5 Acierno Ron PhD 6 Ruggiero Kenneth J. PhD 1 Kilpatrick Dean G. PhD 7 Jaffe Anna E. PhD 8 Resnick Heidi S. PhD 7 1 Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA 2 Yeshiva University, New York, NY, USA 3 University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA 4 SANE-SART Resource Service, Minneapolis, MN, USA 5 University of Tulsa, OK, USA 6 University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA 7 Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA 8 University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Amanda K. Gilmore, Mark Chaffin Center for Healthy Development and the Department of Health Policy and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, Georgia State University, PO Box 3995, Atlanta, GA, 30302, USA. Email: agilmore12@gsu.edu 11 2019 0886260519884674 © The Author(s) 2019 2019 SAGE Publications The current study assessed the efficacy of a brief video intervention (Prevention of Post-Rape Stress [PPRS]) delivered in the emergency department to recent sexual assault (SA) victims. PPRS was compared to treatment as usual (TAU) and an active control condition (Pleasant Imagery and Relaxation Instruction [PIRI]). Primary outcomes were posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and perceived present control. Prior SA was examined as a moderator of treatment effects. Women ( n = 233; aged 15 years and older; 59.70% identified as a racial or ethnic minority) who received a post-SA medical forensic exam participated in the study (NCT01430624). Participants were randomized to watch the PPRS video ( n = 77), the PIRI video ( n = 77), or receive TAU ( n = 79). Participants completed measures of PTSD symptoms and perceived present control 1.5-, 3-, and 6-months post-SA. An interaction between condition and prior SA was found on PTSD symptom frequency and on perceived present control. Among women with a prior SA, women in the PPRS versus TAU condition reported less frequent PTSD symptoms 6-months post-SA. Those in the PPRS condition had lower perceived present control than those in the TAU condition among those with no prior SA 3-months post-SA. However, at 6-months post-SA, among women with a prior SA, women in the PPRS reported higher perceived present control than those in TAU. These findings partially replicate a prior study in which PPRS was found to be beneficial in mitigating the development of PTSD symptoms, but only for women with a prior SA. sexual assault PTSD clinical trials computer/Internet technology secondary prevention National Institute on Drug Abuse https://doi.org/10.13039/100000026 K23DA042935 National Institute on Drug Abuse https://doi.org/10.13039/100000026 R01DA023099 edited-state corrected-proof Authors’ Note Ron Acierno is also affiliated with Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA. Declaration of Conflicting Interests The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Funding The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: Data collection and manuscript preparation were supported by grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA; R01DA023099 to Dr. Resnick and K23DA042935 to Dr. Gilmore). ORCID iD Amanda K. Gilmore https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5376-9206

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2019.

Keywords

  • PTSD
  • clinical trials
  • computer/Internet technology
  • secondary prevention
  • sexual assault

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