Purpose: To examine the association between postmenopausal hormone therapy and Age-Related Maculopathy (ARM) in older women and to determine if these associations vary by smoking status. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 1065 women of European origin aged ≥ 74 years attending the year-10 examination of the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures was performed. Fundus photographs were graded for ARM using a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System used in NHANES III. Multiple imputation methods were used to examine the associations of type and duration of postmenopausal hormone therapy use with early and late ARM as well as interactions with smoking history. Results: Compared to never users, Neither estrogen alone (E), Estrogen plus progestin (E+P), nor duration of use was significantly associated with early ARM [odds ratio (OR) E = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-1.34; OR E+P = 0.85, 95% CI 0.55-1.35; OR ≤ 3 years use = 1.04, 95% CI 0.74-1.47; OR > 3-12 years use = 0.93, 95% CI 0.64-1.35; OR > 12 years use = 0.95, 95% CI 0.65-1.37] or late ARM (OR any E/E+P = 0.59, 95% CI 0.29-1.19; OR ≤ 3 years use = 0.73, 95% CI 0.30-1.77; OR > 3 years of use = 0.51, 95% CI 0.22-1.17), though power for late ARM was limited. Tests for smoking interactions were not significant. Conclusions: This study found no evidence to support an association between use of E, E+P, or duration of use and ARM risk.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures is supported by National Institutes of Health funding, under the following grant numbers: AG05407, AR35582, AG05394, AR35584, AR35583, and AG08415.Support for Dr. Seitzman was also provided by National Institutes of Health, National Eye Institute grant number EY07026.Support for Dr. Mangione was also provided by the UCLA Center for Health Improvement in Minority Elders/Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Aging (AG-02-004).
- Age-related macular degeneration
- Age-related maculopathy
- Postmenopausal hormone therapy