Like many separation processes, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis are often compromised by concentration polarization. Such polarization can be mitigated by static mixers and other flow barriers placed as spacers next to the membrane surface. These spacers can be shaped like ladders, herringbones, and helices. The effect of these spacers can be successfully predicted without adjustable parameters from extensions of the Lévêque equation. The predictions are in agreement with results of computational fluid mechanics and with electrochemical experiments. They supply a tool for optimizing spacer design.
- Concentration polarization
- Reverse osmosis