To determine whether poultry contact/consumption predicts colonization with antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli, 567 newly hospitalized patients and 100 vegetarians were assessed microbiologically and epidemiologically. Multivariable analysis showed that poultry contact/consumption, other dietary habits, and antimicrobial use did not significantly predict resistance. In contrast, foreign travel significantly predicted both trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole resistance (prevalence ratio, 2.7 [95% confidence interval, 1.3-5.6]) and "any resistance" (total population), whereas intensive-care-unit exposure predicted any resistance (hospital patients). Thus, most of the individual-level exposures - including poultry contact/consumption - that had been expected to be significant risk factors for infection with antimicrobial-resistant E. coli did not prove to be such. Other exposures, including household-, community-, and population-level effects,maybe more important.