Two consecutive samples one year apart of injecting drug users (n=754 and n=345) were collected in Sydney, Australia and analysed for predictors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence. Data indicated that similar variables were associated with HIV infection in both waves of the study. Risks for HIV infection included number of injections in last typical using month, acceptance of used injecting equipment from other injecting drug users (IDUs) who were known to be infected either before or after the sharing occurred, having sex with people known to be infected with HIV, and sexual orientation. It was not possible to determine whether sexual or equipment sharing with known HIV infected people preceded or followed HIV infection. These data confirm that predictors of HIV prevalence in Sydney are similar to those found in overseas studies and that sexual orientation appears to be the most powerful predictor. These data suggest both that sexual contact is an important route of infection in IDUs, and that sexual risks for HIV infection in IDUs need to be emphasised.