The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an innovative, multicomponent, theory-based educational intervention for pediatric residents on prevention of tobacco use counseling for cessation. Before and 3 months after intervention residents in a large urban midwestern pediatric residency program completed a self-assessment of measures of their attitudes and counseling behaviors. The intervention was a 3-hour multicomponent program including presentations, case discussions, role-plays and support material based on concepts from Motivational Interviewing (MI). Participants reported increased confidence in their ability to counsel, as well as greater frequency of counseling (standardized effect size (d) = 0.57). Residents also reported an increased use of principal components of MI, assessing how important quitting is to patients (d = .66), and how confident patients are in their ability to quit (d = .78). This brief educational intervention taught theory-based counseling techniques to pediatric residents. After the study, participants reported significant increases in their frequency of counseling as well as greater use of the MI principles.