Controversy exists over whether pretransplantation consolidation chemotherapy affects the outcome of subsequent autotransplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). The current study was undertaken to determine the association between previous consolidation and outcome of autotransplantation for AML in first remission. Posttransplantation outcomes of 146 patients receiving no consolidation were compared with those of 244 patients receiving standard-dose (<1 gm/m2) and 249 patients receiving high-dose (1-3 gm/m2) cytarabine, using proportional hazards regression to adjust for differences in prognostic variables. One-year transplantation-related mortality was similar among the cohorts. Five-year relapse rates were 49% (95% confidence interval CI = 39%-58%) with no consolidation, 35% (95% CI = 29%-42%) with standard-dose cytarabine, and 40% (95% CI = 33%-48%) with high-dose cytarabine (P = .07). Five-year leukemia-free survival rates were 39% (95% CI = 30%-47%) with no consolidation, 53% (95% CI = 46%-60%) with standard-dose cytarabine, and 48% (95% CI = 40%-56%) with high-dose cytarabine (P = .03). Similarly, 5-year overall survival was better in those patients receiving consolidation: 42% (95% CI = 34%-51%) with no consolidation, 59% (95% CI = 52%-65%) with standard-dose cytarabine, and 54% (95% CI = 46%-61%) with high-dose cytarabine (P = .01). Although most patients received 1 or 2 cycles of consolidation, the number of courses had no detectable effect on transplantation outcome. In multivariate analysis, risks of relapse and treatment failure were lower in the patients receiving consolidation, especially among those patients receiving blood cell grafts. Outcomes with standard-dose and high-dose cytarabine were similar. Based on our findings, we recommend that patients with AML in first remission receive consolidation before undergoing autotransplantation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Public Health Service Grant U24-CA76518 from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; the Office of Naval Research; the Health Resources Services Administration (DHHS); AABB, Aetna; AIG Medical Excess; American Red Cross; Amgen; Inc.; an anonymous donation to the Medical College of Wisconsin; AnorMED, Inc.; Berlex Laboratories, Inc.; Biogen IDEC, Inc.; Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association; BRT Laboratories, Inc.; Celgene Corp.; Cell Therapeutics, Inc.; CelMed Biosciences; Cubist Pharmaceuticals; Dynal Biotech, LLC; Edwards Lifesciences RMI; Endo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Enzon Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; ESP Pharma; Fujisawa Healthcare, Inc.; Gambro BCT, Inc.; Genzyme Corporation; GlaxoSmithKline, Inc.; Histogenetics, Inc.; Human Genome Sciences; ILEX Oncology, Inc.; Kirin Brewery Company; Ligand Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Merck & Company; Millennium Pharmaceuticals; Miller Pharmacal Group; Milliman USA, Inc.; Miltenyi Biotec; National Center for Biotechnology Information; National Leukemia Research Association; National Marrow Donor Program; NeoRx Corporation; Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals; Ortho Biotech, Inc.; Osiris Therapeutics, Inc.; Pall Medical; Pfizer, Inc.; Pharmion Corp.; QOL Medical; Roche Laboratories; StemCyte, Inc.; Stemco Biomedical; StemSoft Software, Inc.; SuperGen, Inc.; Sysmex; The Marrow Foundation; THERAKOS, a Johnson & Johnson company; University of Colorado Cord Blood Bank; Valeant Pharmaceuticals; ViaCell, Inc.; ViraCor Laboratories; W.B. Saunders, Mosby, Churchill Livingstone; and Wellpoint Health Network. The contents of this article are the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of the National Cancer Institute.
- Acute myelogenous leukemia