OBJECTIVE - The few available studies suggest that Filipino-Americans have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes and its major risk factors among Filipino-Americans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan statistical area between September 1998 and March 2000. The convenience sample included 831 Filipino-American participants aged 20-74 years. The major risk factors assessed were age, sex, family history of diabetes, socioeconomic status, obesity (BMI >30), physical inactivity, acculturation, region of birth and, in women, history of gestational diabetes and delivery of a baby weighing >9 1b. RESULTS - Overall prevalence was estimated to be 16.1% (95% Cl 13.5-18.7). Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified independent risk factors increasing age from ages 35-44 years (odds ratio [OR] 5.6, 95% Cl 1.5-20.5) to 65-74 years (34.2, 7.2-163.0); male sex (1.8, 1.1-32.1); family history of diabetes (4.7, 2.6-8.5); obesity (3.6, 1.4-9.0); region of birth, Mindanao (3.2, 1.3-7.7); and, among women, gestational diabetes (21.7, 6.7-69.7) and low income (5.3, 1.4-20.2). CONCLUSIONS - The study observed a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and supports earlier studies suggesting that Filipinos are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes than the U.S. non-Hispanic white population.