To support the goal of a tobacco-free Air Force, a longitudinal study of 3,531 first-term airmen was conducted during basic military training (BMT) at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. Tobacco use is currently prohibited during the 6-week period of BMT. Three self-reported surveys to determine tobacco use prevalence and behaviors were administered at the beginning, end, and 90 days post-BMT. Results indicate that 36% of men and 29% of women used some form of tobacco prior to BMT. Within 90 days after completing BMT, 74% of matched males and females resumed tobacco use and 6% of matched males and females initiated tobacco use. Regression analysis found that several survey questions could predict 85% of tobacco use and 88% of non-tobacco use after BMT. We conclude that tobacco prohibition during BMT has a small, beneficial effect on post-BMT tobacco use. Further efforts, however, are needed to meet the goal of a tobacco-free Air Force.