Optimal timing for consideration of lung transplantation remains unknown. This study examined survival in patients with end-stage lung disease awaiting transplantation. Primary disease group and relevant indicators were evaluated. Ninety-three patients who met selection criteria for lung transplantation were included in this retrospective review. Of this total, 31% underwent transplantation, 38% remain waiting, and 31% died. Results demonstrate that the six-month actuarial survival rate was 89% for Eisenmenger’s syndrome, 81% for emphysema, 74% for cystic fibrosis, 60% for primary pulmonary hypertension, and 38% for interstitial lung disease. Parameters found to be significant included a higher mean right atrial pressure in primary pulmonary hypertension patients who died awaiting transplantation, and lower forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity measurements in cystic fibrosis patients who died awaiting transplantation. We conclude that primary disease significantly affects survival in candidates awaiting transplantation. Reliable indicators predictive of survival are not available. Earlier referral for consideration of lung transplantation is recommended.