Forest ecosystems provide services that can be promoted by state property tax incentive programs. A 50-state review in 2014–2015 determined that such programs were used to foster services such as protection of soil and water resources, habitat for fish and wildlife, aesthetically pleasing landscapes, and the production of timber and wood fiber. The review determined that nearly 210 million acres (85 million hectares [ha]) were enrolled in 58 different state property tax programs, an estimated 44% of private forest area eligible for enrollment. Over 3.85 million participants benefited from the programs and collectively received more than $1.61 billion in reduced annual property taxes. The average annual value of the reduction was $7.68 per acre ($19.00 per ha).