Prognostic value and function of KLF4 in prostate cancer: RNAa and vector-mediated overexpression identify KLF4 as an inhibitor of tumor cell growth and migration

Ji Wang, Robert F. Place, Vera Huang, Xiaoling Wang, Emily J. Noonan, Clara E. Magyar, Jiaoti Huang, Long Cheng Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

115 Scopus citations

Abstract

KLF4/GLKF4 is a transcription factor that can have divergent functions in different malignancies. The role of KLF4 in prostate cancer etiology remains unclear. We have recently reported that small double-stranded RNA can induce gene expression by targeting promoter sequence in a phenomenon referred to as RNA activation (RNAa). In this study, we examine KLF4 levels in prostate cancer tissue and utilize RNAa as a tool for gene overexpression to investigate its function. Expression analysis indicated that KLF4 is significantly downregulated in prostate cancer cell lines compared with nontumorigenic prostate cells. Meta-analysis of existing cDNA microarray data also revealed that KLF4 is frequently depleted in prostate cancer tissue with more pronounced reduction in metastases. In support, tissue microarray analysis of tumors and patient-matched controls indicated downregulation of KLF4 in metastatic tumor samples. Logistic regression analysis found that tumors with a KLF4 staining score less than 5 had a 15-fold higher risk for developing metastatic prostate cancer (P = 0.001; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-79.0). In vitro analysis indicated that RNAa-mediated overexpression of KLF4 inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival and altered the expression of several downstream cell-cycle-related genes. Ectopic expression of KLF4 via viral transduction recapitulated the RNAa results, validating its inhibitory effects on cancer growth. Reactivation of KLF4 also suppressed migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells. These results suggest that KLF4 functions as an inhibitor of tumor cell growth and migration in prostate cancer and decreased expression has prognostic value for predicting prostate cancer metastasis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10182-10191
Number of pages10
JournalCancer Research
Volume70
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 15 2010

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