Background: Left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) by phase analysis of gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a useful tool for predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy and has prognostic value. While most of the studies were done on patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy or those with LV ejection fraction (EF) < 35%, there are little data on the prognostic value of LVMD in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM), particularly those with mildly decreased systolic function and narrow or intermediate QRS duration. Methods and Results: From the stress SPECT-MPI database at Cleveland Clinic, we identified 324 consecutive patients (mean age 62 ± 13 years, 62% male, 36% diabetics) with NICM, LVEF 35-50% (median [Q1,Q3] 45 [41,49]), and QRS < 150 ms (13% with QRS 120-149 ms). LVMD was determined from gated stress images and expressed as phase standard deviation (SD) and histogram BW (% R-R cycle). For easier graphical illustration, patients were divided into tertiles of LVMD. All-cause death was the primary endpoint and determined using the Social Security Death Index. Cox proportional hazard model was performed to determine the independent predictive value of LVMD, and next Cox models for incremental value. After a mean follow-up time of 1,689 days, 86 (26.5%) of patients died. These patients were older, had more diabetes, more use of diuretics, with wider QRS duration, and with a trend for higher phase SD and BW. After adjusting for age, hypertension, diabetes, aspirin, beta-blockers, diuretics, QRS, and EF, phase SD was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality with hazard ratio [95% CI] 1.97 [1.06,3.66] for the highest tertile, and added incremental prognostic value (P =.025). Similar findings were obtained using histogram BW. Conclusion: In patients with NICM, EF 35-50%, and QRS < 150 ms, increased LVMD on peak stress SPECT was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. The utility and applicability of such findings in clinical practice need further evaluation in larger and prospective studies.
- Left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony
- non-ischemic cardiomyopathy
- phase analysis
- single photon emission tomography