The unmet demand for cheap, accurate, and fast multiplexing of biomarkers has urged nanobiotechnology to prioritize the invention of new biomarkers that make feasible the remote detection, identification, and quantification of biological units, such as regenerative tissues. Here, we introduce a novel approach that highlights magnetic nanowires (MNWs) with such capabilities. This method employs the stable magnetization states of MNWs as a unique characteristic that can be realized by projecting the MNWs' switching field on the backward field (PHb), also known as the irreversible switching field. Experimentally, several types of MNWs were directly synthesized inside polycarbonate tissues and their PHb characteristics were measured and analyzed. Our results show that the PHb gives an excellent identification and quantification characteristic for demultiplexing MNWs embedded in these tissues. Furthermore, this method significantly improves the characterization speed by a factor of 50×-100× that makes it superior to the current state of the art that ceased the progression of magnetic nanoparticles in multiplexing/demultiplexing applications.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work is based upon work supported primarily by the National Science Foundation under grant no. CMMI-1762884. Portions of this work were conducted in the Minnesota Nano Center, which is supported by the National Science Foundation through the National Nano Coordinated Infrastructure Network (NNCI) under Award Number ECCS-1542202. Part of this work was performed at the Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) at the University of Minnesota. The IRM is a US National Multi-user Facility supported through the Instrumentation and Facilities program of the National Science Foundation, Earth Sciences Division (NSF/EAR 1642268), and by funding from the University of Minnesota. Parts of this work were also carried out in the Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, which receives partial support from NSF through the MRSEC program.