The onset, level and duration of PCV2 and anti-PCV2 antibody in oral fluid were evaluated using samples collected from experimentally inoculated pigs for 98days post-inoculation (DPI). Pigs (n=24) were obtained at 3weeks of age and randomly allocated to 4 treatment pens of 6 pigs each: (i) negative control group; (ii) inoculated with PCV2a (strain ISU 40895) on DPI 0; (iii) inoculated with PCV2a (strain ISU-40895) on DPI 0 and re-challenged at DPIs 35 and 70; (iv) inoculated with PCV2a (ISU-40895), PCV2b (PVG4072) and PCV2a (ISU-4838) on DPIs 0, 35 and 70, respectively. Serum was collected from each animal, and one oral fluid sample was collected from each pen (group) every other day from DPI 2 through DPI 14 and weekly through 98 DPI. Oral fluid samples were assayed for the presence of PCV2 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and anti-PCV2 IgG, IgA and IgM antibody isotypes by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Serum was assayed for anti-PCV2 IgG by ELISA. Anti-PCV2 antibodies (IgG, IgM and IgA) were detected in oral fluid from experimentally inoculated pigs from DPI 14 with IgG and IgA clearly present at 98 DPI. PCV2 was detected in oral fluid samples from all pens of inoculated pigs at 2 DPI. Thereafter, PCV2 was detected in oral fluid throughout 98 DPI. Overall, the data indicated that PCV2 infection in swine is prolonged, persists in the face of an active antibody response and can be efficiently monitored using oral fluid specimens.
- Oral fluid