Background-Several markers of hemostatic function and inflammation have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, but prospective evidence for their role in ischemic stroke is scant. Methods and Results-The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study measured several of these markers in more than 14 700 participants 45 to 64 years old who were free of cardiovascular disease and were followed up for 6 to 9 years for occurrence of ischemic stroke (n = 191). There was no apparent association between ischemic stroke incidence and factor VIIc, antithrombin III, platelet count, or activated partial thromboplastin time. After adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors, von Willebrand factor, factor VIIIc, fibrinogen, and white blood cell count were positively associated and protein C was negatively but nonsignificantly associated with ischemic stroke incidence in regression analyses based on either continuous variables or fourths of the variable distributions. The adjusted relative risk (and 95% CI) for ischemic stroke in those in the highest versus lowest fourth were: von Willebrand factor, 1.71 (1.1 to 2.7); factor VIIIc, 1.93 (1.2 to 3.1); white blood cell count, 1.50 (0.9 to 2.4); fibrinogen, 1.26 (0.8 to 2.0); and protein C, 0.65 (0.4 to 1.0). Conclusions-This study offers modest support for the hypothesis that some markers of hemostatic function and inflammation can identify groups of middle-aged adults at increased risk of stroke. These factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke.