Protective efficacy of high-passage avian pneumovirus (APV/MN/turkey/1-a/97) in turkeys

B. R. Gulati, D. P. Patnayak, A. M. Sheikh, P. E. Poss, S. M. Goyal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

A U.S. isolate of avian pneumovirus (APV), APV/MN/turkey/1-a/97, was attenuated by serial cell culture passages in chicken embryo fibroblasts (seven passages) and Vero cells (34 passages). This virus was designated as APV passage 41 (P41) and was evaluated for use as a live vaccine in commercial turkey flocks. The vaccine was inoculated by nasal and ocular routes in 2-to-4-wk-old turkeys in 10 turkey flocks, each with 20,000-50,000 birds. Only 2 birds per 1000 birds were inoculated in each flock with the expectation that bird-to-bird passage would help spread the infection from P41-exposed birds to their respective flock mates. The virus did spread from vaccinated birds to the entire flock within 10 days as detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mild respiratory illness was observed in a few birds 12 days postvaccination in 2 of 10 flocks. Within 3 wk postvaccination, all flocks became seropositive for APV antibodies as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In an additional flock, the virus was administered to all turkeys simultaneously in drinking water and seroconversion occurred within 2 wk. All 11 flocks remained seropositive until 10 wk postvaccination. When compared with unvaccinated flocks on the same farm from the previous year, the medication cost, total condemnation, and mortality rates attributed to APV were lower in P41-vaccinated flocks. When birds from vaccinated flocks were challenged with virulent APV under experimental conditions, no clinical signs were observed at 2, 6, and 10 wk postvaccination, whereas in the control unvaccinated birds, respiratory illness and virus shedding occurred after challenge. These results indicate that P41 administered by the nasal and ocular routes, and by drinking water, causes seroconversion and induces protection from virulent APV challenge for at least 10 wk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)593-597
Number of pages5
JournalAvian diseases
Volume45
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2001

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