Protein B23/nucleophosmin/numatrin (B23) is a key nucleolar/nuclear matrix-associated protein required for cell growth-related functions, such as rRNA synthesis. Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) (formerly casein kinase 2, a protein Ser/Thr kinase signal that is involved in cell growth and cell death) mediates phosphorylation of B23, thereby influencing its functional activity. Here we have delineated the dynamics of B23 and its link to CK2 status in response to altered growth stimuli and induction of apoptosis in cultured prostate cells and in rat prostate cells in vivo. Our studies employing PC-3 and ALVA-41 prostate cancer cells demonstrated colocalization of CK2 and B23 in the nucleus. Further, CK2 and B23 underwent coordinate modulation in the nucleus related to their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in response to induction of apoptotic activity in cells caused by downregulation of CK2 or by treatment with other apoptosis-inducing agents. These alterations in nuclear association of B23 occurred in the absence of a significant change in the level of cytoplasmic B23. Similar studies in the in vivo model of rat prostate epithelial cells subjected to androgen deprivation (that resulted in loss of nuclear CK2 and induction of apoptosis) demonstrated dynamic modulation of nuclear matrix-associated B23 without a significant change in its cytoplasmic level. These changes were reversed by androgen-mediated growth response in the prostate. Our results suggest that CK2-mediated phosphorylation of B23 is essential for its retention in the nucleus and that coordinated nuclear localization of B23 and CK2 is dynamically regulated in response to altered growth status in the cell.