A review of the counselling issues in AIDS-related syndromes is presented. Using a risk continuum model, psychological issues differentiating high risk and low risk behavior are outlined. Differentiation by risk behaviour is held to most clearly identify differing psychological reactions to a diagnosis of HIV infection. The psychological concomitants of AIDS, ARC and HIV asymptomatic infection, together with organic mental syndrome complications, are summarised and the appropriate response noted. Special concerns affecting individuals who are participants in high risk activity, have AIDS-related anxiety, or AIDS phobias who are not HIV antibody positive are addressed.