A systematic study is made of the non-perturbative effects in quantum chromodynamics. The basic object is the two-point functions of various currents. At large Euclidean momenta q the non-perturbative contributions induce a series in (μ2/q2) where μ is some typical hadronic mass. The terms of this series are shown to be of two distinct types. The first few of them are connected with vacuum fluctuations of large size, and can be consistently accounted for within the Wilson operator expansion. On the other hand, in high orders small-size fluctuations show up and the high-order terms do not reduce (generally speaking) to the vacuum-to-vacuum matrix elements of local operators. This signals the breakdown of the operator expansion. The corresponding critical dimension is found. We propose a Borel improvement of the power series. On one hand, it makes the two-point functions less sensitive to high-order terms, and on the other hand, it transforms the standard dispersion representation into a certain integral representation with exponential weight functions. As a result we obtain a set of the sum rules for the observable spectral densities which correlate the resonance properties to a few vacuum-to-vacuum matrix elements. As the last bid to specify the sum rules we estimate the matrix elements involved and elaborate several techniques for this purpose.