Brain energy metabolism relies predominantly on glucose and oxygen utilization to generate biochemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is essential for maintaining basal electrophysiological activities in a resting brain and supporting evoked neuronal activity under an activated state. Studying complex neuroenergetic processes in the brain requires sophisticated neuroimaging techniques enabling noninvasive and quantitative assessment of cerebral energy metabolisms and quantification of metabolic rates. Recent state-of-the-art in vivo X-nuclear MRS techniques, including 2H, 17O and 31P MRS have shown promise, especially at ultra-high fields, in the quest for understanding neuroenergetics and brain function using preclinical models and in human subjects under healthy and diseased conditions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Drs. Byeong-Yeul Lee, Fei Du, Nanyin Zhang, Xiaoliang Zhang, Hao Lei, Gregor Adriany, Kamil Ugurbil, Yi Zhang and Mr. Hannes Wiesner, for their support, technical assistance and contribution to the development of the in vivo MRS imaging technologies described in this article. The work as reviewed in this article was partly supported by NIH grants of R01 NS057560 , NS070839 and MH111413 , R24 MH106049 , P41 EB015894 , P30 NS5076408 ; the W.M. Keck Foundation .
- Brain energy metabolism
- Cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMR) and oxygen (CMRO) consumption, and ATP production (CMR)
- In vivo X-nuclear MRS and imaging
- NAD redox state
- TCA cycle rate (V)
- Ultra-high magnetic field (UHF)